What is Quran

Quran is the central religious text of Islam. The Holy Quran was orally revealed by Allah (SWT) to the final prophet, Muhammad (PBUH), through the archangel Jibreel (Gabriel) (A.S). The Holy Quran was revealed over a time period of 23 years. It is a pure and holy book which is a source of guidance for all Mankind. Unlike other heavenly books which were prescribed for a certain time period or certain nation, therefore, the rules and regulation also corresponded to that time period or nation. However, the Holy Quran is such a complete book that it’s provides guidance not for a certain nation or a certain time period but for all Mankind up to the day of resurrection. It provides guidance in all fields of life and is not limited.

The Holy Quran
Photo by Syed Aoun Abbas

The Holy Quran is organized in 114 chapters (Arabic: sūrah) and Surahs are subdivided into verses (Arabic: āyah). The Surahs themselves are of two categories.

  • Makki Surahs

The Surahs which were revealed in the initial time period of 13 years (which the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) spent in Mecca) are called the Makki Surahs. These Surahs taught the lesson of patience and contained topics such as Oneness of Allah (SWT), Prophet hood, and the day of resurrection.

  • Madni Surahs

The Surahs which were revealed after the migration to Medina are known as Madni Surahs. These Surahs were relevant to the new needs of the Muslim community. These contained rules and regulations for the Muslims to follow. Other than this, many acts of worship such as Fasting, Pilgrimage (Hajj), and Alms giving (Zakat) were made compulsory.

The First Revelation of the Quran

Recite in the name of your Lord who created

Created man from a clinging substance.

Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous –

Who taught by the pen

Taught man that which he knew not.

Quran, 96:1-5

The first revelation of the Quran
Photo by Adli Wahid